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Ancient History / Vedic Civilization

Vedic Economy


    Vedic economy was not uniform throughout the Vedic period. Rig Vedic economy was basically a pastoral economy whereas the Later Vedic period witnessed mainly an agrarian economy.

    Rig Vedic Economy

    • Rig Vedic economy was essentially a pastoral economy as the main activity of people was rearing animals. Agriculture remained a secondary activity then. The only food grain mentioned in Rig Veda is Yava (wheat and barley).
    • Regarding industries, Textile, Leather, Pottery, Carpentry, Metal industries were present. The only metal mentioned in Rig Veda for making tools is Aya (copper and bronze).
    • Trade and commerce was carried out on a limited scale. Suvarna Nishka was mentioned frequently in Rig Veda. According to some historians, these are gold coins but others have rejected it. It may be a gold ornament with some fixed value.

    Later Vedic Economy

    • Here, pastoral economy was replaced by agrarian economy. During this period, Aryans migrated from Sapta Sindhu region to Indo-Gangetic basin. They started growing Vrihi (Vedic term for rice) extensively.
    • Krishna Aya, which is nothing but Iron, started to be used around 1000 BC.
    • Trade and commerce was considerably developed as a result of high level of agriculture. Urbanization started in Indo-Gangetic basin.