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Medieval History / Early Medieval Era

Kalyani Chalukya Dynasty

    Tailapa II established Western Chalukya Dynasty which is also called Kalyani Chalukya Dynasty after its capital Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan). They ruled initially from Manyakheta and later moved to Kalyani. Western Chalukyas fought many wars with the Chola dynasty to reduce its influence in Vengi, which was controlled by Eastern Chalukyas.

    Plotical History of Western Chalukya Empire

    • King Vikramaditya VI - He had two scholars in his court, namely Bilhana (a Kashmiri), who wrote a book Vikramankadevacharita and Vijnaneshwara, who was a jurist. Vijnaneshwara wrote a law book (Dharmasastra) named Mitakshara based on Yajnavalkya Smriti.

    • King Someshvara III - He was a scholar. He wrote a book named Manasollasa, which is also called Abhilashitartha Chintamani. He also wrote the incomplete biography Vikramankabhyudaya of his father Vikramaditya VI. He took the titles as Sarvadnya-bhupa and Bhulokamala.

    • King Tailapa III - During his reign, Western Chalukya empire started to disintegrate. The capital Kalyani was captured by Kalachuri Bijjala II and he ruled from there. During this time, Tailapa III fled to Annigeri.

    • King Someshvara IV - He was the last king of Western Chalukya Dynasty. He tried revive the Western Chalukya empire by defeating the declining Kalachuri kingdom. He was able to capture Kalyani briefly but failed in resisting other feudatories like the Hoysalas, the Yadavas and the Kakatiyas from completely overpowering the empire.

    Three Gems of Kannada Literature

    • They are the first three Kannada poets (10 - 11th C). They are Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna.

    • Pampa - He is known as Adikavi in Kannada. He wrote a book named "Pampa Bharata" also called Vikramarjuna Vijaya, a translation of Mahabharata. He wrote one more book named "Adipurana" on first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha.

    • Sri Ponna - He wrote a book Shantipurana, a book on Shantinatha, one of the Tirthankaras.

    • Ranna - Ranna was in the court of the Western Chalukya kings Tailapa II and his successor Satyashraya. He wrote a book Ajitha Purana, a book on Ajitanatha, one of the Tirthankaras.

    • All the three gems of Kannada literature were Jains.
Extra Information

  • Present Hindu Law of Inheritance is based on Mitakshara except in Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha. In these states, Inheritance is based on Dayabhaga (based on Manusmriti), which was written by Jimutavahana in 12th C. According Dayabhaga, property can be inherited after death of parents but according to Mitakshara, children have equal rights after they were born.