GK Chronicle GK Chronicle

Modern History / Socio-religious Reform Movements

Parsi and Sikh Reform Movements in India


    The important Parsi movement was Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha and the important Sikh movements were Nirankari, Namdhari, Kuka Movement and Akali Movement.



    Parsi Reform Movements in India

    • In 1851, an organization called Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha was started by a group of Parsis, namely Naoroji Furdunji, Sorabji Shapurji Bengali and Dadabhai Naoroji.

    • They started a journal called Rast Goftar (The Truth Teller).

    Sikh Reform Movements in India

    • Three Sikh movements were started against idolatry

      • Nirankari (Formless God) Movement - It was founded by Baba Dayal Singh.

      • Namdhari Movement - It was started by Baba Balak Singh.

      • Kuka Movement - It was started by Bhagat Jawahar Mal, popularly known as Sian Saheb. They wanted to end British rule in Punjab and revive (took the path of Wahabi movement) Sikh power. It has been suppressed by the British.
    • Akali Satyagraha (Akali Movement)

      • It was started in 1921 against Mahants (Priestly class). It was being supported by Mahatma Gandhi.

      • It wanted to liberate Gurudwaras from the clutches of Mahants. The important leaders of Akali movement were Kartar Singh, Tara Singh and Baba Kharak Singh.

      • The movement was successful and the British passed Gurdwara Act, 1925. As per this Act, the Mahants were kept out of Gurudwaras.

      • The Act created a committee called Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) to manage the Gurudwaras. Baba Kharak Singh was the first President of SGPC.